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PPSC lecture of Political Science past papers
PPSC lecture of Political Science past papers

PPSC lecture of Political Science past papers

PPSC lecturer past papers

PPSC lecture of Political Science past papers


Who wrote leviathan?

  1. Thomas Hobbes ( Correct Answer )
  2. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
  3. James Mill
  4. John Stuart Mill
  5. None of these.


  Who was Founder of utilitarian school of thought?

  1. Edmund Burke
  2. David Hume
  3. John Stuart Mill
  4. Jeremy Bentham ( Correct Answer )
  5. None of these

locke laid down state is that ;

  1. An end in itself
  2. Means to an end
  3. Unavoidable evil ( Correct Answer )
  4. Legal necessity
  5. None of these.



How many basic fundamental require for constitute a state?

  1. Four ( Correct Answer )
  2. Seven
  3. Six
  4. Nine



What is Laissez Faire policy?

  1. Withdrawal of ‘some restrictions’ ( Correct Answer )
  2. Centralizations
  3. Expansion in trade
  4. Control over industry



  Who consideration Materialistic interpretation of history?

  1. Leon Trotsky
  2. Vladimir Lenin
  3. Karl Marx ( Correct Answer )
  4. Mensheviks



  Fascism as a political theory originated in:

  1. France
  2. Germany
  3. Italy ( Correct Answer )
  4. Russia
  5. None of these.



  Which on is written by Plato?

  1. Politics
  2. The Laws ( Correct Answer )
  3. Political Economy
  4. Polity
  5. None of these.



  Al-Mauwardi wrote:

(a) Ahkamul Sultaniya

(b) Siyasatnama

(c) Sayarul Muluk

(d) Ahyaul Ulum

(e) None of ‘these.



  Who Strongly Support Justices  

(a) Socrates

(b) Aristotle (Correct Answer)

(c) Herodotus

(d) Stoics

(e) None of these.



  The Spirit of Laws was written by: 

  1. John Locke
  2. Hume
  3. Edmund Burk
  4. Montesquieu (Correct Answer)



  ‘Felicific Calculus’ was the contribution of:

(a) Bentham (Correct Answer)

(b) Aristotle

(c) Plato

(d) J. S. Mill

(e) None of these.



  The theory of ‘Group Mind’ was enunciated by:

(a) Al-Mauwardi

(b) Ibn-i-Khaldun (Correct Answer)

(c) Al-Ghazali

(d) Al-Farabi

(e) None of these.



The theory of ‘Surplus Value’ as a part of communistic philosophy was the contribution of:

(a) Karl Marx (Correct Answer)

(b) Trotsky

(c) Fredrick Angel

(d) Recordo

(e) None of these.



  Hobbian social contract is based on:

(a) Desire for peace (Correct Answer)

(b) Selfishness

(c) Fear

(d) Completion

(e) None of these.



  Importance of civil service has grown due to:

(a) Population growth

(b) Increased state activity (Correct Answer)

(c) Complexity of rules and regulations

(d) Law and order requirement

(e) None of these.


PPSC lecture of Political Science past papers 2014


  Which political theory propounded that state will ultimately disappear: 

(a) Syndacatism

(b) Fabian socialism

(c) Fascism

(d) Communism

(e) None of these.



  According to Aristotle the end of state is:

(a) Legal

(b) Social

(c) Ethical (Correct Answer)

(d) Economic

(e) None of these.


Interest groups always try to:

(a) Gain political power directly

(b) Influence the exercise of power

(c) Both ‘a’ and ‘b’

(d) None of these



  Author of the book ‘Capital’ is”:

(a) Karl Marx

(b) Lenin

(c) Mao

(d) None of these



  A voluntary union of sovereign and independent states is called:

(a) Federation

(b) Confederation

(c) Unitary State

(d) None of these



  Author of the book ‘Leviathan’ is:

(a) Thomas Hobbes

(b) John Locke

(c) Rousseau

(d) None of these



  “Reconstruction of Religion Thought in Islam” is written by:

(a) Syed Amir Ali

(b) Allama Iqbal

(c) Hamid Ahmad

(d) None of these



  The author of the book ‘Statesman’ is:

(a) Aristotle

(b) Machiavelli

(c) Plato

(d) None of these



  “Justice is giving everyone his due” is said by:

(a) Rousseau

(b) Hobbes

(c) Aristotle

(d) None of these



  The dissolution of Khilafat and the establishment of ‘Grand National Assembly” in Turkey was highly appreciated by:

(a) Allama Iqbal

(b) Maulana Shokat Ali

(c) Mohammad Ali Jinnah

(d) None of these



  Author of the Book ‘Spirit of Islam” is:

(a) Sir Syed Ahmad Khan

(b) Abdul Kalam Azad

(c) Syed Amir Ali 

(d) None of these



  The concept of ‘Separation of Powers’ was given by:

(a) Montesquieu

(b) Machiavelli

(c) Bentham

(d) None of these



  Which of the political philosophers was more admitted by the American Founding Fathers, and his thoughts on the importance of private property were reflected in the drafting and historical development of the American Constitution.

(a) John Locke

(b) Thomas Hobbes

(c) Rousseau

(d) None of these



  According to Aristotle which is the best amongst the Perverted form of the ideal states:

(a) Tyranny

(b) Oligarchy

(c) Democracy

(d) None of these



  Who said “Law is the command of a determinate sovereign”?

(a) John Austin

(b) Laski

(c) Bentham

(d) None of these



  “Only the will of the sovereign can be the source of law”. Who said it? 

(a) John Hobbes

(b) John Austin

(c) Groutious

(d) None of these



  Those who are active against the very existence of state are known as:

(a) Fascists

(b) Anarchists

(c) Socialists

(d) None of these



The concept of ‘Surplus Value’ is given by:

(a) Mao

(b) Lenin

(c) Marx

(d) None of these



  In Plato’s Ideal State, one reaches at the pinnacle of the State order at the age of:

(a) 35

(b) 40

(c) 50

(d) None of these (50)



  Which one is the ‘supreme law of the land in USA’?

(a) Constitutional Law

(b) General Law

(c) International Law

(d) None of these



  The system of ‘Basic Democracies’ was introduced by:

(a) Gen. Yahya Khan

(b) Gen. Zia-ul-Haq

(c) Z. A. Bhutto

(d) None of these



  Fascism as a theory originated in:

(a) Germany

(b) Russia

(c) Italy

(d) None of these


The Objective Resolution was adopted in:

(a) 1947

(b) 1949(c) 1951

(d) None of these


PPSC lecture of Political Science past papers 2015

  Simla delegation was led by:

(a) Sir Agha Khan

(b) Sir Sayyed

(c) Maulana Shibly Noamani

(d) None of these



  This is the parting of ways was said by:

(a) Quaid e Azam

(b) Allama Iqbal

(c) Pandit Nehru

(d) None of these



  Pakistan became Republic in:

(a) 1947

(b) 1949

(c) 1951

(d) None of these: 1956


  The quorum of House of Commons is:

(a) 20 members

(b) 30 members

(c) 40 members

(d) None of these



  The Supreme Court of Pakistan comprises:

(a) 9 judges

(b) 11 judges

(c) 13 judges

(d) None of these



  The Indian parliament is:

(a) Unicameral

(b) Bicameral

(c) Tricameral

(d) None of these



  The American Senate comprises:

(a) 99 Senators

(b) 100 Senators

(c) 101 Senators

(d) None of these



  In Pakistan, the Constitution has been abrogated:

(a) Once

(b) Twice

(c) Thrice

(d) None of these



  The tenure of French President is fixed at:

(a) 5 years

(b) 7 years

(c) 9 years

(d) None of these



  Turkish Government is:

(a) Democratic

(b) Dictatorial

(c) Monarchial

(d) None of these



  Cultural Revolution in China was aimed at reforming of:

(a) Communist Party

(b) Bureaucracy

(c) Red Army

(d) None of these



  The Islamic Revolution in Iran ushered in:

(a) Military rule

(b) Clergy’s rule(c) People’s rule

(d) None of these



  People’s Republic of China was established in:

(a) 1949

(b) 1950

(c) 1951

(d) None of these



  Power in the Soviet Union rested with the:

(a) Supreme Soviet

(b) Communist Party

(c) Presidium

(d) None of these



The House of Lords is predominantly:

(a) Elected

(b) Appointed

(c) Hereditary

(d) None of these



  The Soviet Union was established in:

(a) 1917(b) 1919

(c) 1921

(d) None of these



  The USA was founded in:

(a) 1789

(b) 1791

(c) 1793

(d) None of these



  The Electoral College in US comprises: 

(a) 535 Electors

(b) 538 Electors

(c) 541 Electors

(d) None of these



  Eighth Amendment was adopted in the Constitution of Pakistan in:

(a) 1985

(b) 1986

(c) 1987

(d) None of these



 “An essay concerning Human Understanding” is written by:


(a) Thomas Hobbes

(b) John Locke

(c) J. J. Rousseau

(d) None of these


  The father had planned a legal for his son but the son had no inclination towards that. Who was the son?

(a) Aristotle

(b) Machiavelli

(c) John Locke

(d) None of these


  “The spirit of Law” is divisible into six parts; total number of volumes of this book are:

(a) 30

(b) 31

(c) 32

(d) None of these


  “Political Science begins and ends with the state” is said by:

(a) Paul Janct

(b) Stephen Leacock

(c) Professor Garner 

(d) None of these


  Thyau’l-Ulum was the chief work of:

(a) Al Farabi

(b) Al Manwardi

(c) Al Ghazali

(d) None of these


PPSC lecture of Political Science past papers 2016

  According to Aristotle which is the bad government of the rich:

(a) Tyranny

(b) Oligarchy

(c) Democracy

(d) None of these


  Constitutional classified as rigid and flexible in a book titled “Studies in History and Jurisprudence” was written by:

(a) Gilchrist

(b) T. H. Green

(c) Lord Bryce

(d) None of these


  “Wealth of Nations” was written by”

(a) John Stuart Mill

(b) Jerry Bentham

(c) Adam Smith

(d) None of these


  Aristotle is the original name of:

(a) Plato

(b) Aristotle

(c) Machiavelli

(d) None of these


  Which of these books represents the scheme of Plato’s Philosophy?

(a) The Politics

(b) The Republic 

(c) The Laws

(d) None of these


  “Muqaddamah” was the great work of:

(a) Ibn Khuldun

(b) Al Maawardi

(c) Nizam-ul-Mulk

(d) None of these


  “Asabiyah” was enunciated by:

(a) Al-Ghazali

(b) Al-Maawardi

(c) Al-Farabi

(d) None of these (Ibn-e-Khaldun)


  “Theory of Divine Right of King” was presented by King James of England in century:

(a) 16th

(b) 17th 

(c) 18th

(d) None of these


  “To rule is to educate” is said by:

(a) Muhammad (SAW)

(b) Al – Ghazali

(c) Allama Iqbal

(d) None of these (Plato)


  A discourse on the origin of Inequality and the social contract was presented by:

(a) Rousseau

(b) Hobbes

(c) John Locke

(d) None of these


Sovereignty is which one of the following bases of the state:

(a) Physical

(b) Natural

(c) Spiritual

(d) None of these


  Law is “the body of Principles recognized and applied by the state in the administration of justice” is said by:

(a) Holland

(b) Green

(c) Salmond

(d) None of these


  The term Propaganda acquired derogatory sense:

(a) Before World War I

(b) During World War I

(c) After World War I

(d) None of these


  The word “polis” means:

(a) Civilized people

(b) Form of government

(c) A city state

(d) None of these


  In which century Austinian theory of Sovereignty was refuted by Pluralists?

(a) 18th

(b) 19th

(c) 20th 

(d) None of these



Originally total number of States of USA was:

(a) 13

(b) 18

(c) 20

(d) None of these:


  The first government of US was based on the articles of:

(a) Federation

(b) Confederation

(c) Unitary State

(d) None of these


  US constitution consists of Articles:

(a) 7

(b) 15

(c) 20

(d) None of these


  Members of Washington DC in the Electoral College for the Presidential Elections in America are:

(a) 2

(b) 4

(c) 1

(d) None of these  


  The first American President was:

(a) Abraham Lincoln

(b) George Washington

(c) James Madison

(d) None of these


  Total amendments in the US Constitution are:

(a) 16

(b) 26

(c) 27

(d) None of these


  The dissolution of Khilafat and the establishment of ‘Grand National Assembly’ in Turkey was highly appreciated by:

(a) Allama Iqbal

(b) Maulana Shokat Ali

(c) Muhammad Ali Jinnah

(d) None of these


  Ideological foundations of Turkish Constitution are based on:

(a) Kamalism

(b) Socialism

(c) Islam

(d) None of these


  The title “Ambassador of Hindu – Muslim Unity” was given to Mr. Jinnah by:

(a) Mustafa Kamal

(b) Sarojini Naidu

(c) Allama Iqbal

(d) None of these


  The concept of ‘Separation of Powers’ in US Constitution was taken from:

(a) Montesquieu

(b) Machiavelli

(c) Bentham

(d) None of these


  Islam was declared as the “State Religion” in Pakistan’s Constitution of:

(a) 1962

(b) 1973

(c) 1985

(d) None of these


  All types of explanation were to be eliminated according to Pakistan’s Constitution of:

(a) 1956

(b) 1962

(c) 1973

(d) None of these


  When the British Government in India cancelled the separation of Bengal?

(a) 1905

(b) 1911

(c) 1915

(d) None of these


  “If the president dissolves the legislature, he himself shall have to be re-elected. It was mentioned in Pakistan’s Constitution of:

(a) 1956

(b) 1962

(c) 1973

(d) None of these


  French System of government is:

(a) Presidential

(b) Parliamentary

(c) Mixed

(d) None of these


(16) The first document of English liberties, Magna Carta was signed by King John in:

(a) 1215

(b) 1649

(c) 1688

(d) None of these


  The British Constitution can be amended by the Parliament with:

(a) Simple majority

(b) 2/3 majority

(c) ¾ majority

(d) None of these


  Peoples Republic of China came into being in:

(a) 1946

(b) 1949

(c) 1950

(d) None of these


PPSC lecture of Political Science past papers 2017


  Indian President is elected by:

(a) Parliament

(b) Provincial Assemblies

(c) Parliament and Provincial Assemblies

(d) None of these


  Commune system is a part of the political system of:

(a) China

(b) India

(c) USA

(d) None of these


The writer of Social Contract and the Islamic State is:

(a) Ilyas Ahmad

(b) Ibn Khuldun

(c) Iqbal

(d) None of these


  Who is the author of “Politics in Pakistan: The Nature and Direction of Change”?

(a) Khaild B Sayeed

(b) Ilyas Ahmad

(c) Hafeezur Rehman

(d) None of these


  “Quaradae-e-Maqasid se Islamic Qanoon Tuk” is written by:

(a) Hafeezur Rehman

(b) Khaild B Sayeed

(c) Ilyas Ahmad

(d) None of these


  George H. Sabine is the author of:

(a) A history of Political Theory

(b) Republic

(c) The spirit

(d) None of these


  Plato is the author of:

(a) Republic

(b) Social Contract

(c) History of Political Thought

(d) None of these


  The idea that “Virtue is knowledge” is attributed to:

(a) Aristotle

(b) Plato

(c) Montesquieu

(d) None of these( Socrates )


  ‘Political Science begins and ends with the state’ is said by:

(a) Aristotle

(b) Professor Garner

(c) Paul Janet

(d) None of these


  ‘The city of god’ is the work of:

(a) Aquinas

(b) St. Augustine

(c) Austin

(d) None of these


  The ideas of Aristotle are more acceptable to the West than Plato’s because he propagated:

(a) Rule of law

(b) Democracy

(c) Tyranny

(d) None of these


  He is known as the founding father of Utilitarianism:

(a) James Mill

(b) Jeremy Bentham 

(c) C. Wright Mills

(d) None of these


  Ahya ul ulum is the work of:

(a) Al Farabi

(b) Al Mawardi

(c) Al Ghazali

(d) None of these


  He is famous for his work “Muqaddameh”:

(a) Ibn Taimiyah

(b) Nizamul Mulk

(c) Ibn Khuldun

(d) None of these


  The Bolshevik movement in Russia was led by:

(a) Stalin

(b) Trotsky

(c) Lenin

(d) None of these


  He is known as the major theorist of bureaucracy:

(a) Burk

(b) Dahl

(c) Max Weber

(d) None of these


  Cultural Revolution in China was launched under the leadership of:

(a) Chou-en-lai

(b) Lin Piao

(c) Mao dzedung

(d) None of these


(16) Collective responsibility is a feature of:

(a) Parliamentary form

(b) Presidential form

(c) Dictatorship

(d) None of these


  Decentralization is a feature of:

(a) Federal System

(b) Autocraticship system

(c) Unitary system

(d) None of these


  Dictatorship of the Proletariat is one of the concepts of:

(a) Karl Marx

(b) Max Weber

(c) Maodzedung

(d) None of these


  The general Will is the political concept of:

(a) J. J. Rousseau

(b) Hobbes

(c) Locke

(d) None of these


  ‘Leviathan’ is written by:

(a) Thomas Hobbes

(b) Hegel

(c) Locke

(d) None of these



Who was named the first leader of the opposition in Ayub Khan’s constituted first national assembly?

(a) Sardar Bahadur Khan

(b) Mumtaz Daultana

(c) Muhammad Hussain Chatta

(d) Maulana Tamizuddin Khan

(e) Khwaja Nazimuddin

(f) None of these (Mr. Yousaf Khattak)


  Who is the author of the book, ‘Friends not master’?

(a) Ayub Khan

(b) Altaf Gauhar

(c) Sharifuddin Pirzada

(d) Helen Bolitho

(e) Ch. Muhammad Ali

(f) None of these


  “Myth of Independence” was written by:

(a) Shariful Mujahid

(b) Ayub Khan

(c) Z. A. Bhutto

(d) Ch. M. Ali

(e) Kh. Nazimuddin

(f) None of these


  The last Speaker of the National Assembly during Ayub’s government was:

(a) Khan A. Sabur

(b) Sheikh Mujibur Rehman

(c) Zahoor Khan

(d) Abdul Jabbar Khan

(e) Monim Khan

(f) None of these


  Who was the President of US during the Cuban Missile crisis of 1962?

(a) Richard Nixon

(b) J. F. Kennedy

(c) Truman

(d) Eisenhower

(e) L. B. Johnson

(f) None of these


  Who was the prime minister of India during the 1965 war between Pakistan and India?

(a) Jawahar Lal Nehru

(b) Morarji Desai

(c) Lal Bahadur Shastri

(d) Indira Gandhi

(e) Zakir Hussain

(f) None of these


  Who was the mover of the Lahore Resolution of 1940?

(a) Ch. Mohammad Ali

(b) Liaquat Ali Khan

(c) A. K. Fazalul Haq

(d) Khawaja Shahabuddin

(e) Hussain Shaheed Suharwardy

(f) None of these


  Who was called the ambassador of Hindu Muslim Unity?

(a) Moti Lal Nehru

(b) Abdul Kalam Azad

(c) Mahatama Gandhi

(d) Muhammad Ali Jauhar

(e) Muhammad Ali Jinnah

(f) None of these


  Who is the author of the famous book, ‘The Spirit of Islam?

(a) Muhammad Iqbal

(b) Justice Amir Ali

(c) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

(d) Hali

(e) Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar

(f) None of these


  Who was the architect of the Luckhnow Pact of 1916, between Congress and Muslim League?


(a) Sardar Patel

(b) Nehru

(c) Iqbal

(d) C. R. Daas

(e) Gandhi

(f) None of these


  What was the total number of seats in the national assembly under the 1962 constitution?

(a) 100

(b) 150

(c) 300

(d) 200

(e) 220

(f) None of these (156 and then 218)


  Who was the president of Pakistan during the India China war of 1962?

(a) Ghulam Mohammad

(b) Iskandar Mirza

(c) Ch. Muhammad Ali

(d) Ayub Khan

(e) Mushtaq Gurmani

(f) None of these


  Name the author of the book “The great tragedy” and “Myth of Independence”:

(a) Z. A. Bhutto

(b) S. M. Zafar

(c) Shahid Javed Burki

(d) Ayub Khan

(e) Altaf Gohar

(f) None of these


  Who was the president of the US during the 1991 Iraq – Kuwait conflict?

(a) G. W. Bush

(b) Clinton

(c) Richard Nixon

(d) Jimmy Carter

(e) Ronal Regan

(f) None of these (George Herbert Walker Bush)


  Who was the Prime Minister of India during the 1971 crisis?


(a) Lal Bahadur Shastri

(b) Morarji Desai

(c) Indhra Gandhi

(d) Rajiv Gandhi

(e) Zakir Hussain

(f) None of these


(16) What was the year in which the Shah of Iran was overthrown?

(a) 1989

(b) 1992

(c) 1979

(d) 1976

(e) 1980

(f) None of these


  Who was the Governor General of India during the 1st Indo Pakistan conflict over Kashmir in 1948?

(a) Zahir Hussain

(b) Lord Mountbatten

(c) Krishna Menon

(d) Mahatama Gandhi

(e) Jawaherlal Nehre

(f) None of these


  China became a communist state under Maozedong in the year:

(a) 1948

(b) 1949

(c) 1947

(d) 1950

(e) 1951

(f) None of these


  Muslim League was formed in the year:

(a) 1906

(b) 1901

(c) 1911

(d) 1905

(e) 1909

(f) None of these


  Quaid e Azam joined Muslim League in the year:

(a) 1913

(b) 1914

(c) 1917

(d) 1919

(e) 1921

(f) None of these


(1) According to Aristotle the end of State is:-

(a) Logical

(b) Legal

(c) Ethical

(d) None of these


  Al-Farabi by birth was:-

(a) Afghani

(b) Irani

(c) Turk

(d) None of these


  Al-Mawardi was a jurist who followed the fiqah of: 

(a) Imam Malik

(b) Imam Shafi

(c) Imam Abu Hanifa

(d) None of these


  Jean Jacques Rousseau was born at: 

(a) London

(b) Paris

(c) Geneva

(d) None of these


  According to John Locke, the best form of Government is:

(a) Monarchy

(b) Aristocracy

(c) Democracy

(d) None of these


  The term, “anarchism” has been derived from and word ‘anarchia’ which is basically a:

(a) Greek word

(b) Latin word

(c) French word

(d) None of these


  Anarchism is the extrerhe left wing of Socialism. It was first expounded as political doctrine by: 

(a) William Godwin

(b) Prince Kropotkin

(c) Proudhon

(d) None of these


  “Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (1789)” Was written by: 

(a) Jeremy Bentham

(b) J.S. Mill

(c) John Locke

(d) None of these


  “Iqtisad-Fil-Itiqad” was written by:

(a) Al-Mawardi

(b) AI-Farabi

(c) AI-Ghazali

(d) None of these


  “SiyaSat Namahr” was written by:

(a) Nizam-ul-Mulk

(b) AI-Ghazali

(c) Ibn-Khaldun (

  1. d) None of these


  “Ilmul-Iqtisad” was written by:

(a) AI-Ghazali

(b) AI-Mawardi

(c) Allama Iqbal (d) None of these


  “Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam” was written by:

(a) Rosenthal

(b) Mawardi

(c) Ibn-Khuldun

(d) None of these (Iqbal)


  A Discourse on the origin of Inequality and Social Contract was presented by:

(a) Hobbes

(b) Locke

(c) Rousseau

(d) None of these


  According to Allama Iqbal in which form of Government heads are counted: 

(a) Oligarchy

(b) Democracy

(c) Polity

(d) None of these


  The turning point in the life of Plato came in the years 399 BC, when he was of:

(a) 28 years

(b) 20 years

(c) 24 years 

(d) None of these


The Great Political Scientist/Philosopher Aristocles died in the year:

(a) 347 BC

(b) 322 BC

(c) 304 BC

(d) None of these


  Plato went to Syracuse to teach philosophy to the tyrant Kind Dionysus but returned disappointed and opened his Academy. He wrote treatises in the form of dialogue upto the number of: 

(a) 32

(b) 36

(c) 38

(d) None of these


  ‘ The Great but ungrateful pupil of his Master who was born in 384 BC was:

(a) Socrates

(b) Aristotle

(c) Aristotle

(d) None of these


  The Fascism of Plato got birth in 4th Century BC, whereas the modern Fascism is the Product of early: (a) 18th Century

(b) 19th Century

(c) 20th Century

(d) None of these


  “An Essay Concerning Human understanding” was published in 1690, is.the most important work of: 

(a) JSMill ,

(b) Bentham

(c) Thomas Hobbes

(d) None of these


PPSC lecture of Political Science past papers solved

Get all book past papers click here

Who wrote the following books:  

(a) Pakistan. The Heart of Asia: Liaquat Ali Khan

(b) Jinnah of Pakistan: Stanley Wolpert

(c) Bush at War: Bob Woodward

(d) The End of India: Khushwant Singh

(e) Last Days of British Raj in India: Leonard Mosley

(f) Muslim Separatism in India: Abdul Hamid


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